Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed nations. Up to 88% of strokes are ischemic in nature. Extracranial carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is the third leading cause of ischemic stroke in the general population and the second most common nontraumatic cause among adults younger than 45years. This article provides comprehensive, evidence-based recommendations for the management of extracranial atherosclerotic disease, including imaging for screening and diagnosis, medical management, and interventional management.
Ooi, Y. C., & Gonzalez, N. R. (2015). Management of extracranial carotid artery disease. Cardiology Clinics. W.B. Saunders. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccl.2014.09.001