The burden of infectious diseases both before and after liver transplantation is clearly attributable to the dysfunction of defensive mechanisms of the host, both as a result of cirrhosis, as well as the use of immunosuppressive agents. The present document represents the recommendations of an expert panel commended by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF), on the prevention and management of infectious complications excluding hepatitis B, D, C, and HIV in the setting of liver transplantation. Due to a decreased response to vaccinations in cirrhosis as well as within the first six months after transplantation, the best timing for immunization is likely before transplant and early in the course of disease. Before transplantation, a vaccination panel including inactivated as well as live attenuated vaccines is recommended, while oral polio vaccine, Calmette-Guerin's bacillus, and Smallpox are contraindicated, whereas after transplantation, live attenuated vaccines are contraindicated. Before transplant, screening protocols should be divided into different levels according to the likelihood of infection, in order to reduce costs for the National Health Service. Recommended preoperative and postoperative prophylaxis varies according to the pathologic agent to which it is directed (bacterial vs. viral vs. fungal). Timing after transplantation greatly determines the most likely agent involved in post-transplant infections, and specific high-risk categories of patients have been identified that warrant closer surveillance. Clearly, specifically targeted treatment protocols are needed upon diagnosis of infections in both the pre- as well as the post-transplant scenarios, not without considering local microbiology and resistance patterns. © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fagiuoli, S., Colli, A., Bruno, R., Craxì, A., Gaeta, G. B., Grossi, P., … Burra, P. (2014). Management of infections pre- and post-liver transplantation: Report of an AISF consensus conference. Journal of Hepatology. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2013.12.021