Urban heat islands (UHIs) can have negative effects on cities. Under tropical climate and for large and high-dense mega cities like Singapore the elevated temperature levels yield to higher energy consumption for cooling, reduced outdoor thermal comfort, and a lowered quality of urban living in general. While modeling and simulation of UHIs has been done successfully for the temperate zone and cities of either dominantly flat roof-scape (i.e. in Europe) or repetitive urban layout (in the U.S.), the same approach cannot be applied to Singapore. Three-dimensional cellular automata (3D-CA) are here proposed as means to model the manifold vertical features, which are not sufficiently taken into account with current state-of-the-art methods: the heterogeneous high-rise landscape and convection as a major heat rejection mechanism. As we demonstrate 3D-CA enable a new approach of UHI modeling where traditional urban microclimate models fail and computational fluid dynamics are not applicable due to the large scale.
Berger, M. (2016). The manifold challenges for modeling the urban heat island. In Procedia Computer Science (Vol. 80, pp. 2000–2007). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.05.520