Several small molecule drugs that bind to the host CCR5 co-receptor and prevent viral entry have been developed for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. The innate variability found in HIV-1 envelope and the complex viral/cellular interactions during entry makes defining resistance to these inhibitors challenging. Here we found that mapping determinants in the gp160 gene from a primary isolate RU570-VCVres, selected in culture for resistance to the CCR5 entry inhibitor vicriviroc, was complicated by inactivity of the cloned envelope gene in pseudovirus assays. We therefore recombined the envelope from RU570-VCVres into a highly active and susceptible ADA gp160 backbone. The chimeric envelopes generated robust signals in the pseudovirus assay and a 200 amino acid fragment, encompassing a C2-V5 region of the RU570-VCVres envelope, was required to confer resistance in both the single-cycle assay and in replicating virus. In contrast, a chimeric envelope that contained only the V3-loop region from this resistant virus was completely susceptible suggesting that the V3-loop changes acquired are context dependent. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ogert, R. A., Wojcik, L., Buontempo, C., Ba, L., Buontempo, P., Ralston, R., … Howe, J. A. (2008). Mapping resistance to the CCR5 co-receptor antagonist vicriviroc using heterologous chimeric HIV-1 envelope genes reveals key determinants in the C2-V5 domain of gp120. Virology, 373(2), 387–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2007.12.009