It all seems very simple. A researcher writes up her findings to share them with her community. The findings are sent to a journal where the editor sends the manuscript out to peers to read. The reviewers comment and return the manuscript to the editor. The editor either asks the researcher to address the comments, or rejects the manuscript based on the reviews. The researcher sends their final manuscript to the editor, who in turn works with the publisher to ensure dissemination. Done.
Buckland, A., Eve, M. P., Steel, G., Gardy, J., & Salo, D. (2013). On the Mark? Responses to a Sting. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.1116