The reactions of light induced oxidative water splitting were analyzed within the framework of the empirical rate constant-distance relationship of non-adiabatic electron transfer in biological systems (C. C. Page, C. C. Moser, X. Chen, P. L. Dutton, Nature 402 (1999) 47-52) on the basis of structure information on Photosystem II (PS II) (A. Guskov, A. Gabdulkhakov, M. Broser, C. Glöckner, J. Hellmich, J. Kern, J. Frank, W. Saenger, A. Zouni, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11 (2010) 1160-1171, Y. Umena, K. Kawakami, J-R Shen, N. Kamiya, Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9 Å. Nature 47 (2011) 55-60). Comparison of these results with experimental data leads to the following conclusions: 1) The oxidation of tyrosine Y z by the cation radical P680+ · in systems with an intact water oxidizing complex (WOC) is kinetically limited by the non-adiabatic electron transfer step and the extent of this reaction is thermodynamically determined by relaxation processes in the environment including rearrangements of hydrogen bond network(s). In marked contrast, all Yzox induced oxidation steps in the WOC up to redox state S3 are kinetically limited by trigger reactions which are slower by orders of magnitude than the rates calculated for non-adiabatic electron transfer. 3) The overall rate of the triggered reaction sequence of Yzox reduction by the WOC in redox state S3 eventually leading to formation and release of O2 is kinetically limited by an uphill electron transfer step. Alternative models are discussed for this reaction. The protein matrix of the WOC and bound water molecules provide an optimized dynamic landscape of hydrogen bonded protons for catalyzing oxidative water splitting energetically driven by light induced formation of the cation radical P680 + ·. In this way the PS II core acts as a molecular machine formed during a long evolutionary process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Renger, G. (2012). Mechanism of light induced water splitting in Photosystem II of oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms. In Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics (Vol. 1817, pp. 1164–1176). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.02.005