Since the discovery of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) more than 20 years ago, numerous studies have focused on the mechanisms regulating ANP secretion. From a physiological standpoint, the most important factor governing ANP secretion is mechanical stretching of the atria, which normally occurs when extracellular fluid volume or blood volume is elevated. In addition, the ability of several vasoconstrictors to increase ANP secretion can be traced to their indirect effects on atrial stretch via increases in cardiac preload or afterload. Whether vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II and vasopressin have a direct positive or negative effect on ANP secretion has not been determined with certainty. Two paracrine factors derived from endothelial cells play important roles in modulating ANP secretion. Endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor, stimulates ANP secretion and augments stretch induced ANP secretion. The dramatic increase in ANP release produced by cardiac ischemia appears to be mediated in part by endothelin. Nitric oxide (NO), an important vasodilator, is also produced by endothelial cells and inhibits ANP secretion acting through cyclic GMP as an intracellular messenger. Several recent studies have helped to define the cellular mechanism contributing to regulation of ANP secretion including stretch-activated ion channels, prostaglandins, cytochrome P450, G proteins and cell calcium. A number of steps in the cellular transduction of the ANP signal remain to be resolved. The release of ANP in disease states such as myocardial infarction and heart failure appears to be related to both mechanical and cellular events. © 2005 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dietz, J. R. (2005, October 1). Mechanisms of atrial natriuretic peptide secretion from the atrium. Cardiovascular Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.06.008