Comparative risk assessment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) among current, former and non-smokers categories remains controversial and not studied in detail. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all the relevant published studies on this topic and to update the association between smoking and prevalence of COPD in current, former and non-smokers. Identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion of articles for the study were conducted as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Quality assessment of included studies was undertaken using a scoring sheet. Meta-analysis after the final synthesis of the selected studies was performed using the STATA and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software. Estimates from forty two independent studies reporting 547,391 individuals were identified. Twenty two studies were conducted in Europe, nine in America and ten in Asia and one from New Zealand. The meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of COPD was significantly higher in current smokers compared with former and non-smokers. However, owing to large heterogeneity among the estimates obtained from the studies, stratification was done with respect to continent, diagnostic criteria of COPD and study design which also showed similar results. The stratified analysis also revealed similar trend of results with prevalence of COPD being higher in current smokers as compared to former and non-smokers. The present meta-analysis highlights the positive association between smoking and COPD prevalence. There is an urgent need to implement more effective policies towards the restriction of tobacco use, to reduce the burden of COPD.
Kamal, R., Srivastava, A. K., & Kesavachandran, C. N. (2015, July 21). Meta-analysis approach to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among current, former and non-smokers. Toxicology Reports. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.07.013