Background Metabolic profiles have been shown to provide prognostic information in patients with heart failure (HF). Galectin-3 (Gal-3), indicating cardiac fibrosis, is a documented biomarker of prognosis in HF. It is unknown whether metabolic profiles provide prognostic value better than Gal-3. Methods and results This study analyzed 212 hospitalized HF patients, measuring metabolic score (composed by butyrylcarnitine, dimethylarginine/arginine ratio, spermidine, and total essential amino acids) and Gal-3. Endpoints were composite events (death/HF-related re-hospitalization). The median of metabolic scores and Gal-3 levels were 3.1 (1.3–5.2) and 17.8 ng/mL (4.7–100 ng/mL), respectively. Patients with higher metabolic scores had worse functional classes, higher atrial fibrillation incidences, levels of Gal-3 and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), but lower albumin levels and glomerular filtration rate. Correlations of metabolic score to Gal-3 and BNP were significant, but weak (r = 0.34 and 0.41, respectively, both p < 0.001). During a follow-up period of 4.2 ± 1.4 years, there were 91 (42.9%) composite events. In univariate analysis, significant predictors of composite events were age, functional class, atrial fibrillation, levels of hemoglobin, log (Gal-3), log (BNP) and metabolic score. In multivariable analysis, adjusted for above variables, metabolic score remained a strong predictor of combined endpoints (hazard ratio = 2.596, 95% confidence interval = 1.649–4.087, p < 0.001). C-statistics for the prediction of composite events significantly increased when metabolic score was incorporated into the model with established risk factors, BNP and Gal-3 [0.76 (0.70–0.83) vs. 0.66 (0.58–0.74), p = 0.032]. Conclusions Metabolic profile provides prognostic value for HF patients better than Gal-3.
Wang, C. H., Cheng, M. L., Liu, M. H., Kuo, L. T., & Shiao, M. S. (2017). Metabolic profile provides prognostic value better than galectin-3 in patients with heart failure. Journal of Cardiology, 70(1), 92–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2016.10.005