Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk are highly prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine the cardiometabolic profile and the associated risk factors in a group of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving prolonged hospital care in the only tertiary psychiatric institution in Singapore. Methods Patients residing in long stay wards who were hospitalized for a minimum period of 1 year were recruited. Fasting blood sample was collected to obtain levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides. Waist circumference, blood pressure, height and weight were also measured. The prevalence of MetS and the 10-year cardiovascular risk were determined. Results This inpatient group had a mean age of 56.1 years and an average length of hospitalization of 8.8 years. The prevalence of MetS in this group was 51.9% and 26.9% based on the AHA/NHLBI and modified NCEP ATP III criteria respectively. Those in the high risk BMI category and those who had pre-existing diabetes had higher odds of MetS. Their 10-year cardiovascular risk was estimated at 12.8%, indicating intermediate risk based on the Framingham risk function. Conclusion Despite the low smoking rate in this group of inpatients, their cardiovascular risk appeared to be relatively high possibly due to old age and age-related conditions such as hypertension and low HDL. While literature has found the use of atypical antipsychotic medications to increase the risk of MetS, we did not find any significant association. Additionally, the duration of hospitalization did not affect the rate of MetS in our sample.
Seow, L. S. E., Chong, S. A., Wang, P., Shafie, S., Ong, H. L., & Subramaniam, M. (2017). Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among institutionalized patients with schizophrenia receiving long term tertiary care. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 74, 196–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2017.01.017