Classical hypothesis testing focuses on testing whether treatments have differential effects on outcome. However, sometimes clinicians may be more interested in determining whether treatments are equivalent or whether one has noninferior outcomes. We review the hypotheses for these noninferiority and equivalence research questions, consider power and sample size issues, and discuss how to perform such a test for both binary and survival outcomes. The methods are illustrated on 2 recent studies in hematopoietic cell transplantation. © 2009 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Tunes da Silva, G., Logan, B. R., & Klein, J. P. (2009). Methods for Equivalence and Noninferiority Testing. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 15(1 SUPPL.), 120–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.10.004