© 2016 Bombeiro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Major histocompatibility complex class one (MHC-I) antigen-presenting molecules participate in central nervous system (CNS) synaptic plasticity, as does the paired immunoglobulinlike receptor B (PirB), an MHC-I ligand that can inhibit immune-cells and bind to myelin axon growth inhibitors. Based on the dual roles of both molecules in the immune and nervous systems, we evaluated their expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) following sciatic nerve injury in mice. Increased PirB and MHC-I protein and gene expression is present in the spinal cord one week after nerve transection, PirB being mostly expressed in the neuropile region. In the crushed nerve, MHC-I protein levels increased 2 weeks after lesion (wal) and progressively decreased over the next eight weeks. The same kinetics were observed for infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) but not for PirB expression, which continuously increased. Both MHC-I and PirB were found in macrophages and Schwann cells but rarely in axons. Interestingly, at 8 wal, PirB was mainly restricted to the myelin sheath. Our findings reinforce the participation of MHC-I and PirB in CNS plasticity events. In contrast, opposing expression levels of these molecules were found in the PNS, so that MHC-I and PirB seem to be mostly implicated in antigen presentation to CTLs and axon myelination, respectively.
Bombeiro, A. L., Thomé, R., Nunes, S. L. O., Moreira, B. M., Verinaud, L., & De Oliveira, A. L. R. (2016). MHC-I and PirB upregulation in the central and peripheral nervous system following sciatic nerve injury. PLoS ONE, 11(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161463