Microarray analysis identifies IL-1 receptor type 2 as a novel candidate biomarker in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a disease associated with a high mortality rate. The initial phase is characterized by induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and influx of circulating inflammatory cells, including macrophages which play a pivotal role in the innate and adaptive immune responses to injury. Growing evidence points to phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity between various macrophage activation states. METHODS: In this study, gene expression in alveolar macrophages and circulating leukocytes from healthy control subjects and patients with ARDS was assessed by mRNA microarray analysis. RESULTS: Both alveolar macrophages and circulating leukocytes demonstrated up-regulation of genes encoding chemotactic factors, antimicrobial peptides, chemokine receptors, and matrix metalloproteinases. Two genes, the pro-inflammatory S100A12 and the anti-inflammatory IL-1 decoy receptor IL-1R2 were significantly induced in both cell populations in ARDS patients, which was confirmed by protein quantification. Although S100A12 levels did not correlate with disease severity, there was a significant association between early plasma levels of IL-1R2 and APACHE III scores at presentation. Moreover, higher levels of IL-1R2 in plasma were observed in non-survivors as compared to survivors at later stages of ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a hybrid state of alveolar macrophage activation in ARDS, with features of both alternative activation and immune tolerance/deactivation.. Furthermore, we have identified a novel plasma biomarker candidate in ARDS that correlates with the severity of systemic illness and mortality.

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Kovach, M. A., Stringer, K. A., Bunting, R., Wu, X., San Mateo, L., Newstead, M. W., … Standiford, T. J. (2015). Microarray analysis identifies IL-1 receptor type 2 as a novel candidate biomarker in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory Research, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-015-0190-x

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