Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e.g., toxins, various peptides, polyphosphate). IAP is produced in the small intestine and secreted into the lumen and in the interior milieu. It detoxifies microbial components by dephosphorylation and, therefore, down-regulates microbe-induced inflammation mainly by inhibiting NF-κB pro-inflammatory pathway in enterocytes. IAP gene expression and enzyme activity are influenced by the gut microbiota. Conversely, IAP controls gut microbiota composition both directly, and indirectly though the detoxification of pro-inflammatory free luminal adenosine triphosphate and inflammation inhibition. Inducible HSPs are expressed by gut epithelial cells in proportion to the microbial load along the gastro-intestinal tract. They are also induced by various microbial components, metabolites and secreted molecules. Whether iHSPs contribute to shape the gut microbiota is presently unknown. Both systems display strong anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties that are protective to the gut and the host. Importantly, epithelial gene expressions and protein concentrations of IAP and iHSPs can be stimulated by probiotics, prebiotics and a large variety of dietary components, including macronutrients (protein and amino acids, especially L-glutamine, fat, fiber), and specific minerals (e.g. calcium) and vitamins (e.g. vitamins K1 and K2). Some food components (e.g. lectins, soybean proteins, various polyphenols) may inhibit or disturb these systems. The general cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the microbiota-host epithelial crosstalk and subsequent gut protection through IAP and iHSPs are reviewed along with their nutritional modulation. Special emphasis is also given to the pig, an economically important species and valuable biomedical model.
Lallès, J. P. (2016, November 8). Microbiota-host interplay at the gut epithelial level, health and nutrition. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-016-0123-7