The yarn architecture of 3-D braided composites products by the four-step 1 × 1 braiding technique has been studied by means of a control volume method in conjunction with experimental investigation and a numerical method, respectively. An ellipse assumption for the cross-section of yarn was proposed in this analysis method with considering the yarn size and yarn-packing factor. Two types of local unit cell structures were identified for 4-step braided composites by considering the nature of the braiding processes and by observing the sample cross-sections. The relationship between the braiding procedure and the properties for 3-D braided structural shapes was established. This method provides the basis for analyzing stiffness and strength of 3-D braided composites.
Zheng, X. T., & Ye, T. Q. (2003). Microstructure Analysis of 4-Step Three-Dimensional Braided Composite. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 16(3), 142–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1000-9361(11)60175-1