Heart failure has a high prevalence in developed countries. It is a frequent cause of hospital admission and has an important impact on morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Biomarkers have been widely studied in heart failure, as they improve diagnosis and prognostic assessment. Natriuretic peptides are already a part of daily clinical practice but several other biomarkers are being studied. This review focuses on mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and ST2. Neither of these biomarkers is useful in the diagnosis of acute heart failure. However, both have considerable short- and long-term prognostic value in patients with acute and with stable chronic heart failure. The utility of these two biomarkers in guiding heart failure treatment is yet to be established. ST2 appears to have some advantages compared to MR-proADM, because it is more closely associated with ventricular remodeling and fibrosis.
Lopes, D., & Menezes Falcão, L. (2017, June 1). Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin and ST2 in heart failure: Contributions to diagnosis and prognosis. Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.repc.2016.11.009