The purpose of this study is to propose a method that predicts the minimum curing time required for early-age concrete to prevent frost damage. Tests were performed to examine the primary factors that affect the compressive strength of concrete frozen at early ages and to investigate the source of frost damage in early-age concrete. The test results showed that the rate of the decrease in the compressive strength decreases as the start of the frost damage is delayed and when the water-cement ratio is lower. In addition, the results showed that concrete made with Type III cement was less susceptible to frost damage compared with concrete made with ordinary Portland cement. Furthermore, it was found that frost damage occurred through the formation of ice lenses. When early-age concrete is being damaged as a result of freezing, a phase transition of free water into ice appears in the capillary pores of the concrete and leads to a decrease in the compressive strength. Accordingly, the frost resistance of fresh concrete can be determined based on the saturation degree of the capillary pores. A method for predicting the minimum curing time is suggested using the concept of the critical saturation degree of capillary pores. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yi, S. T., Pae, S. W., & Kim, J. K. (2011). Minimum curing time prediction of early-age concrete to prevent frost damage. Construction and Building Materials, 25(3), 1439–1449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.09.021