Cardiac remodeling, which is characterized by mechanical and electrical remodeling, is a significant pathophysiological process involved in almost all forms of heart diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides in length that primarily regulate gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation or post-transcriptional repression in a sequence-specific manner. Three miR-133 genes have been identified in the human genome, miR-133a-1, miR-133a-2, and miR-133b, which are located on chromosomes 18, 20, and 6, respectively. These miRNAs are mainly expressed in muscle tissues and appear to repress the expression of non-muscle genes. Based on accumulating evidence, miR-133 participates in the proliferation, differentiation, survival, hypertrophic growth, and electrical conduction of cardiac cells, which are essential for cardiac fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and arrhythmia. Nevertheless, the roles of miR-133 in cardiac remodeling are ambiguous, and the mechanisms are also sophisticated, involving many target genes and signaling pathways, such as RhoA, MAPK, TGFβ/Smad, and PI3K/Akt. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the critical roles of miR-133 and its potential mechanisms in cardiac remodeling.
Li, N., Zhou, H., & Tang, Q. (2018, August 17). miR-133: A suppressor of cardiac remodeling? Frontiers in Pharmacology. Frontiers Media S.A. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00903