Mismatch negativity (MMN) reduction is one of the most robust findings among several neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia. MMN is a promising biomarker for schizophrenia because of the following properties: 1) its relationship with early psychosis, including clinical high-risk (CHR); 2) its relationship with the functional abilities of patients; and 3) its translatability into basic research using animal models. Specifically, the utility of the passive auditory oddball paradigm that does not require subjects to make behavioral responses enables identical physiological activities to be obtained from both experimental animals and patients. This advantage has contributed to clarifying the generating mechanism of MMN in various animal studies. We reviewed clinical reports focused on early psychosis; specifically differential effects of deviance type and relationships to clinical and functional outcome. For the utility of MMN as a tool for translational research, we next reviewed recent MMN studies in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHP) as well as studies using intracranial recordings in humans, a rare opportunity to detect neural signals in vivo in humans. Neural computations of MMN, such as adaptation, deviance detection, and predictive coding, have been recent topics for understanding MMN generating mechanisms. Finally, several significant research questions were provided for future directions. MMN research could contribute to innovative, novel, therapeutic strategies in the future by becoming a bridge between basic and clinical research.
Tada, M., Kirihara, K., Mizutani, S., Uka, T., Kunii, N., Koshiyama, D., … Kasai, K. (2019). Mismatch negativity (MMN) as a tool for translational investigations into early psychosis: A review. International Journal of Psychophysiology. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.02.009