Background: Allergic disease can be characterized as manifestations of an exaggerated inflammatory response to environmental allergens triggers. Mite allergen Der-p2 is one of the major allergens of the house dust mite, which contributes to TLR4 expression and function in B cells in allergic patients. However, the precise mechanisms of Der-p2 on B cells remain obscure. Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated the effects of Der-p2 on proinflammatory cytokines responses and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-related signaling in human B cells activation. We demonstrated that Der-p2 activates pro-inflammatory cytokines, TLR4 and its co-receptor MD2. ERK inhibitor PD98059 significantly enhanced TLR4/MD2 expression in Der-p2-treated B cells. Der-p2 markedly activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and decreased p38 phosphorylation in B cells. MKP-1-siRNA downregulated TLR4/MD2 expression in Der-p2-treated B cells. In addition, Der-p2 significantly up-regulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased B cell proliferation. Neutralizing Der-p2 antibody could effectively abrogate the Der-p2-induced B cell proliferation. Der-p2 could also markedly induce NF-κB activation in B cells, which could be counteracted by dexamethasone. Conclusions/Significance: These results strongly suggest that Der-p2 is capable of triggering B cell activation and MKP-1-activated p38/MAPK dephosphorylation-regulated TLR4 induction, which subsequently enhances host immune, defense responses and development of effective allergic disease therapeutics in B cells. © 2011 Tsai et al.
Tsai, J. J., Liu, S. H., Yin, S. C., Yang, C. N., Hsu, H. S., Chen, W. B., … Sheu, M. L. (2011). Mite allergen Der-p2 triggers human B lymphocyte activation and Toll-like receptor-4 induction. PLoS ONE, 6(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023249