Electrochemical deposition is a feasible and well-controlled method for the formation of various micro- and nanostructures. A rich variety of periodical nanostructures of functional materials with multi-shaped and tunable morphologies can be fabricated by the electrochemical deposition, in particular, using monolayer colloidal crystal (MCC) mask. A mathematical model of the mass-transfer processes and deposit surface evolution during the metal electrodeposition through MCC mask is presented. The mathematical model involves the equations for the potential and deposit surface evolution. The problem was solved numerically by the boundary element method, and the "Level Set" method. The numerical experiments were used to study the effect of parameters, which characterize the mask geometry and the process conditions, on the initial distribution of current density over the deposit surface and the variation of current density distribution in the course of the deposition.
Volgin, V. M., Lyubimov, V. V., Gnidina, I. V., & Davydov, A. D. (2015). Modeling of formation of nanostructured metal surfaces by electrodeposition through a monolayer colloidal crystal mask. In Procedia CIRP (Vol. 37, pp. 89–94). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2015.08.095