Vitamin A (vitA) regulates obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and hemostasis through its metabolites retinaldehyde (Rald) and retinoic acid (RA) produced in endogenous enzymatic reactions. Combination of at least 3 of these conditions leads to development of metabolic syndrome (Msyn) and, consequently, type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Although many foods are fortified with vitA, it remains unknown what conditions of Msyn are influenced by moderate dietary vitA supplementation. A family of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1) enzymes is a key contributor to obesity via sex- and fat depot-specific production of RA in adipose tissue. Therefore, we studied effects of moderate vitamin A supplementation of an obesogenic high-fat (HF) diet (4 IU vitA/g and 20 IU vitA/g HF diet) on multiple conditions and mediators of Msyn in wild-type (WT, C57Bl/6) and Aldh1a1-/- mice. We found that mild vitamin A supplementation did not influence obesity, fat distribution, and glucose tolerance in males and females of the same genotype. In contrast, multiplex analysis of bioactive proteins in blood showed moderately increased concentrations (10-15%) of inflammatory IL-18 and MIP-1γ in vitA supplemented vs. control WT males. Marked decrease (28-31%) in concentrations of lymphotactin and tissue factor, a key protein contributing to thrombogenesis during injury, was achieved by vitA supplementation in WT females compared to control WT females. Aldh1a1 deficiency reduced obesity, insulin resistance, suppressed many pro-inflammatory cytokines, and abolished the effects of vitA supplementation seen in WT mice. Our study revealed specific inflammatory and pro-thrombotic proteins in plasma regulated by dietary vitamin A and the critical role of endogenous vitA metabolism in these processes. The sex-specific decrease of plasma tissue factor concentrations by moderate dietary vitA supplementation could potentially reduce pro-thrombotic states in obese females. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gushchina, L. V., Yasmeen, R., & Ziouzenkova, O. (2013). Moderate vitamin A supplementation in obese mice regulates tissue factor and cytokine production in a sex-specific manner. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 539(2), 239–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2013.06.020