Background: Staphylococcus aureus has been the most prevalent pathogen in hospital infections worldwide, including Brazil. Many factors contribute to the world dissemination of hospital endemic multiresistant MRSA strains, enabling the recent emergency of Community Acquired Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections. Molecular methods have been used to investigate its role in community infections to address the emergency of outbreaks of new CA-MRSA clones. Methods: We selected subjects with diabetes and/or Hypertension and their relatives, from different areas of the city of Niteroi, in Rio de Janeiro, attending the Family Health Care program by Health Foundation of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 519 subjects from the communities underwent swabbing of both nares. Colonies of interest were phenotyped and all methicillin resistant S. aureus isolates were genotyped to search for mecA gene, characterize pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and SCCmec type. Results: Among all subjects, 357 were colonized with S. aureus (68.79%). Of S. aureus isolates, 37 (10.36%) were methicillin resistant. Women and men presented a prevalence of approximately 68%. However, when this isolates were compared for MRSA colonization, women presented a higher prevalence (11.11%) than men (7.24%). Individuals aged 60 years or more, had higher estimated probabilities of nasal S. aureus colonization (75.76%). However, subjects aged from 12 to 19 years and 40 to 59 years presented the highest methicillin resistant prevalence rates (10.57%). In addition, regions with poor sanitation conditions showed the highest level of S. aureus colonization. The analysis also revealed that 67% of the individuals carrying some metabolic syndrome were colonized by S. aureus. Conclusion: The study suggests, corroborated by many authors, that subjects presenting diabetes and hypertension are found to be more colonized by S. aureus then other subjects. Hitherto, factors such as increase of the cost of treatment, the potential loss of productivity of infected patients, the possibility of untreatable infections and the increased mortality, indicate the need for a prevention of MRSA infections.
Miranda, T., Brust, T., Miyazaki, N. H. T., Kang, H., Isaias, L., Fernandes, O., & Aguiar-Alves, F. (2010). Molecular analysis and risk factors for nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among community individuals attending a Family Health Care Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 14, e207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2010.02.1947