Background Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a difficult-to-treat chronic subcutaneous mycosis. In Brazil, the main agent of this disease is Fonsecaea pedrosoi, which is phenotypically very similar to other Fonsecaea species, differing only genetically. The correct species identification is relevant since different species may differ in their epidemiologic aspects, clinical presentation, and treatment response. Methodology/Principal findings Partial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was used to identify twenty clinical isolates of Fonsecaea spp. Their in vitro antifungal susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method, according to the M38-A2 protocol. Amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), terbinafine (TRB), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), ketoconazole (KTC), posaconazole (POS), voriconazole (VRC), ravuconazole (RVC), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MFG) were tested. The association between ITC/TRB, AMB/5FC, and ITC/CAS was studied by the checkerboard method to check synergism. The available patients’ data were correlated with the obtained laboratory results. Fonsecaea monophora (n = 10), F. pedrosoi (n = 5), and F. nubica (n = 5) were identified as CBM’ agents in the study. TRB and VRC were the drugs with the best in vitro activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) lower than 0.25 mg/L. On the other hand, FLC, 5FC, AMB, and MFG showed high MICs. The AMB/5FC combination was synergistic for three F. monophora strains while the others were indifferent. Patients had moderate or severe CBM, and ITC therapy was not sufficient for complete cure in most of the cases, requiring adjuvant surgical approaches. Conclusions/Significance F. monophora, the second most frequent Fonsecaea species in South America, predominated in patients raised and born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, without cerebral involvement in these cases. TRB, VRC, and the AMB/5FC combination should be further investigated as a treatment option for CBM.
Coelho, R. A., Brito-Santos, F., Figueiredo-Carvalho, M. H. G., Silva, J. V. dos S., Gutierrez-Galhardo, M. C., do Valle, A. C. F., … Almeida-Paes, R. (2018). Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of clinical strains of Fonsecaea spp. isolated from patients with chromoblastomycosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006675