Molecular phylogeny of fig wasps Agaonidae are not monophyletic

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According to the present classification, the family Agaonidae contains all fig pollinators as well as five subfamilies of non-pollinating fig wasps. The molecular phylogeny of the family was reconstructed using partial sequences of the 28S rRNA (D1 and D2 domains). Our results show that the family Agaonidae is not monophyletic. As a consequence, we restrict the family to the pollinator clade, and assign the non-pollinating subfamilies to various chalcid families. Sycoecinae, Otitesellinae and Sycoryctinae are included in Pteromalidae, whereas Sycophaginae and Epichrysomallinae are left unclassified and will require more in-depth morphological studies. Moreover, we proved that the fig pollination syndrome evolved only once, early in group history. The resource due to the fig-pollinator mutualism has secondarily been colonized independently by different Chalcid lineages.




Rasplus, J. Y., Kerdelhué, C., Le Clainche, I., & Mondor, G. (1998). Molecular phylogeny of fig wasps Agaonidae are not monophyletic. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie Des Sciences - Serie III, 321(6), 517–527.

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