© 2016 Shao et al. Background: Septic shock is a major healthcare problem with a high mortality rate that might be caused by immunosuppression. Programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death receptor ligand-1 (PD-L1), which are co-inhibitory receptor molecules, participate in sepsis-induced immunosuppression. In this study, we investigated which PD-1-related molecules can be used to evaluate the risk stratification and prognosis of septic patients. Furthermore, we explored the prognostic significance of a combination of ideal predictors and conventional clinical risk parameters in septic shock patients. Methods: In total, 29 healthy controls, 59 septic patients, and 76 septic shock patients were enrolled in this study. Considering that the focus of the research was on the second phase of sepsis, blood samples were obtained at days 3-4 after the onset of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were measured on circulating CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and monocytes (PD-L1 only) by flow cytometry. Results: Our results showed that only monocyte PD-L1 expression gradually increased, based on the increasing severity of disease (P < 0.001). Similarly, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only monocyte PD-L1 expression was an independent predictor of 28-day mortality in septic shock patients. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the combination of monocyte PD-L1 expression and conventional clinical risk parameters indicated a more significant prognostic ability than analysis of each parameter alone. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that, among PD-1-related molecules, only monocyte PD-L1 expression after 3-4 days of sepsis was associated with risk stratification and mortality in septic patients. Furthermore, measurement of monocyte PD-L1 expression was a promising independent prognostic marker for septic shock patients.
Shao, R., Fang, Y., Yu, H., Zhao, L., Jiang, Z., & Li, C. S. (2016). Monocyte programmed death ligand-1 expression after 3-4 days of sepsis is associated with risk stratification and mortality in septic patients: A prospective cohort study. Critical Care, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-016-1301-x