Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis are the major hallmark explanations underlying brain dysfunction. Hypoxia in the current study was induced by Cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) treatment in rats. The aim of this experiment was to explore the potential ameliorative potency of Moringa oleifera ethanolic extract (MO) against experimentally induced hypoxia on the structure and function of the rat's brain. Fifty male rats were allocated to five groups (10 rats each): a control group, a MO-treated group (400 mg/kg bw, orally), a CoCl 2 -treated group (40 mg/kg bw/day, orally), a prophylaxis group, and a therapeutic co-treated group. Oxidative stress biomarkers and monoamine neurotransmitter were evaluated in brain tissue. In addition, qRT-PCR for expression pattern of HIF-1α, EPO, CYTO, NF-kB, and MAO-A. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), apoptotic markers (BCL-2 and caspase 3) were detected immunohistochemically in brain cells. The results revealed a significantly lower concentration of GABA, monoamine neurotransmitter in hypoxic rat's brain. Moreover, an evident up-regulation of the mRNA expression of HIF-1α, EPO, CYTO, NF-kB, and MAO-A. There was marked encephalopathy manifested by pyknotic neurons with eosinophilic cytoplasm, vacuolations and cerebral congestions in the hypoxic rat brains. Additionally, the score of neuronal expression occupied by GFAP- positive astroglia, Caspase-3 and microglial CD68 were elevated but Bcl-2 expression was found decreased in the hypoxic group than control. The endpoints of this study clearly stated that MO ethanolic extract suggestively counteracted neurotoxic impacts caused by hypoxia, particularly when it administered prior to and concurrently with CoCl 2 administration.
Abdel-Rahman Mohamed, A., M.M.Metwally, M., Khalil, S. R., Salem, G. A., & Ali, H. A. (2019). Moringa oleifera extract attenuates the CoCl 2 induced hypoxia of rat’s brain: Expression pattern of HIF-1α, NF-kB, MAO and EPO. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 109, 1688–1697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.11.019