Introduction Three complications have been hypothesized to increase patient mortality following enterocystoplasty: spontaneous bladder perforation, bladder neoplasia, and chronic renal failure (CRF). The present study examined risk of their occurrence and discussed ways to improve the quality of care. Materials and methods The present transitional clinic followed 385 patients with a history of bladder augmentation using either ileal, sigmoid, or ascending colon. The median age was 37 years (range 16–71). Median follow-up interval after augmentation was 26 years (range 2–59). Discussion Spontaneous rupture of the bladder occurred in 3% (13/385), with one associated death (0.25%, 1/385). Spontaneous bladder rupture significantly correlated with substance abuse, non-compliance with catheterization, and mental/physical disabilities that required the use of surrogates to perform and monitor intermittent catheterization (P < 0.01). Of the 203 patients that were followed for ≥10 years, 4% (8/203) developed a bladder tumor. In comparison, 2.5% (5/203) of an age-matched control population, managed by anticholinergics and intermittent catheterization, developed a bladder tumor. Therefore, enterocystoplasty cannot be associated with an increased risk of cancer development (P = 0.397). Chronic renal failure ≥ Stage 3 arose in 15% (58/385), and 1% (4/385) of the patients died as a result of this complication. Obese patients (BMI ≥30) catheterizing per urethra were more likely to be non-compliant with catheterization and develop CRF compared with obese patients with a continent catheterizable stoma (P > 0.001). These findings suggest that compliance with intermittent catheterization and renal preservation are enhanced by the presence of a catheterizable abdominal stoma. Conclusion The individual's intellectual and physical capability to obey medical directives, refrain from high-risk habits, maintain a healthy weight, and comply with long-term follow-up visits were all critical to the enduring success of bladder augmentation.
Husmann, D. A. (2017, August 1). Mortality following augmentation cystoplasty: A transitional urologist’s viewpoint. Journal of Pediatric Urology. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.05.008