Power changes in specific frequency bands are typical brain responses during motor planning or preparation. Many studies have demonstrated that, in addition to the premotor, supplementary motor, and primary sensorimotor areas, the prefrontal area contributes to generating such responses. However, most brain-computer interface (BCI) studies have focused on the primary sensorimotor area and have estimated movements using postonset period brain signals. Our aim was to determine whether the prefrontal area could contribute to the prediction of voluntary movement types before movement onset. In our study, electrocorticography (ECoG) was recorded from six epilepsy patients while performing two self-paced tasks: hand grasping and elbow flexion. The prefrontal area was sufficient to allow classification of different movements through the area's premovement signals (-2.0 s to 0 s) in four subjects. The most pronounced power difference frequency band was the beta band (13-30 Hz). The movement prediction rate during single trial estimation averaged 74% across the six subjects. Our results suggest that premovement signals in the prefrontal area are useful in distinguishing different movement tasks and that the beta band is the most informative for prediction of movement type before movement onset.
Ryun, S., Kim, J. S., Lee, S. H., Jeong, S., Kim, S. P., & Chung, C. K. (2014). Movement type prediction before its onset using signals from prefrontal area: An electrocorticography study. BioMed Research International, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/783203