Background: Relatively little is known about the characteristics of patients who visit the emergency department (ED) for an acute allergic reaction. Although anaphylaxis guidelines suggest treatment with epinephrine, teaching about self-injectable epinephrine, and referral to an allergist, current ED management remains uncertain. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the management of food-related acute allergic reactions. Methods: The Multicenter Airway Research Collaboration performed a chart review study in 21 North American EDs. Investigators reviewed a random sample of 678 charts of patients who presented with food allergy (International Classification of Diseases-ninth revision codes 693.1, 995.0, 995.3, and 995.60-995.69). Results: Patients had an average age of 29 years; the cohort was 57% female and 40% white. A variety of foods provoked the allergic reaction, including nuts (21%), crustaceans (19%), fruit (12%), and fish (10%). Although exposure to these foods can be life threatening, only 18% of patients came to the ED by ambulance. In the ED, 72% of patients received antihistamines, 48% received systemic corticosteroids, and 16% received epinephrine; 33% received respiratory treatments such as inhaled albuterol. Among patients with severe reactions (55% of total), 24% received epinephrine. Overall, 97% of patients were discharged to home. At ED discharge, 16% of patients were prescribed self-injectable epinephrine, and 12% were referred to an allergist. Conclusions: Although guidelines suggest specific approaches for the management of acute allergic reactions, ED concordance for food allergy appears low. These findings support a new collaboration between professional organizations in allergy and emergency medicine and the development of educational programs and materials for ED patients and staff.
Clark, S., Bock, S. A., Gaeta, T. J., Brenner, B. E., Cydulka, R. K., & Camargo, C. A. (2004). Multicenter study of emergency department visits for food allergies. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 113(2), 347–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2003.10.053