The use of herbicides with different modes of action is the primary strategy used to control weeds possessing resistance to a single mechanism of action (MOA). However, this practice can lead to selection for generalist resistance mechanisms and may cause resistance to all MOAs. In this research, we characterized the resistance to diquat/paraquat (bipyridiliums) in an Epilobium ciliatum biotype (R1) collected in an olive orchard from Chile, where alternatives herbicides (2,4-D, glyphosate, glufosinate, flazasulfuron and pyraflufen-ethyl) with different MOAs were used, but they have also showed failure in controlling this species. Because the resistance/susceptibility patterns of the R1 biotype to glufosinate, 2,4-D and pyraflufen-ethyl were not clear, a recurrent resistance selection was carried out in field and greenhouse using these herbicides on R1 plants for three generations (R2 biotype). One biotype that was never treated with herbicides (S) was includedas control. Results indicatedthat the Sbiotype was controlled at the field dose of all herbicides tested. The biotype R1 exhibited resistance to diquat, paraquat and flazasulfuron and natural tolerance to glyphosate. The R2 biotype displayed resistance to glufosinate, 2,4-D and pyraflufen-ethyl with LD50 (herbicide dose to kill 50%of plants) values higher than field doses in all assays. Physiological and biochemical studies determined the resistance to diquat of the R1 biotype, which was due to impaired translocation. The resistance to flazasulfuron in the R1 and R2 biotypes was confirmed by the low sensitivity of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity compared to the S biotype. The similar accumulation of shikimate in treated S, R1, and R2 plants with glyphosate supported the existence of innate tolerance to this herbicide in E. ciliatum. Resistance to glufosinate, 2,4-D and pyraflufen-ethyl in the R2 biotype, acquired after recurrent selection, was determined by low sensitivity of the glutamine synthetase, low accumulation of ethylene and protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase, respectively, in comparison to the S biotype. Epilobium ciliatum from Chilean olive orchards had resistance to only two MAOs (photosystem I and ALS inhibitors), but resistance to five MOAs could occur in the next cropping seasons, if alternatives to weed management, other than herbicides, are not included.
Tahmasebi, B. K., Alcántara-de la Cruz, R., Alcántara, E., Torra, J., Domínguez-Valenzuela, J. A., Cruz-Hipólito, H. E., … De Prado, R. (2018). Multiple resistance evolution in bipyridylium-resistant epilobium ciliatum after recurrent selection. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00695