NADPH oxidases in bone homeostasis and osteoporosis

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Abstract

Bone is a tissue with constant remodeling, where osteoblasts form and osteoclasts degrade bone. Both cell types are highly specialized in their function and both form from precursors and have to be replaced on a regular basis. This replacement represents one control level of bone homeostasis. The second important level would be the control of the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to keep the balance of bone -formation and -degradation. Both differentiation and control of cellular function are potentially redox sensitive processes. In fact, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are utilized by a wide range of cells for differentiation and control of cellular signaling and function. A major source of ROS is the family of NADPH oxidases. The sole function of those enzymes is the formation of ROS in a controlled and targeted manner. Importantly the members of the NADPH oxidase family differ in their localization and in the type and amount of ROS produced. Accordingly the impact of the members of the NADPH oxidase family on differentiation and function differs between cell types. This review will highlight the function of different NADPH oxidases in differentiation and function of bone cells and thereby will discuss the role of NADPH oxidases in bone homeostasis and osteoporosis.

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Schröder, K. (2019, February 20). NADPH oxidases in bone homeostasis and osteoporosis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.08.036

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