© 2017 Hölzemer, Garcia-Beltran and Altfeld. Natural killer (NK) cells are effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are able to mount a multifaceted antiviral response within hours following infection. This is achieved through an array of cell surface receptors surveilling host cells for alterations in human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) expression and other ligands as signs of viral infection, malignant transformation, and cellular stress. This interaction between HLA-I ligands and NK-cell receptor is not only important for recognition of diseased cells but also mediates tuning of NK-cell-effector functions. HIV-1 alters the expression of HLA-I ligands on infected cells, rendering them susceptible to NK cell-mediated killing. However, over the past years, various HIV-1 evasion strategies have been discovered to target NK-cell-receptor ligands and allow the virus to escape from NK cell-mediated immunity. While studies have been mainly focusing on the role of polymorphic HLA-A, -B, and -C molecules, less is known about how HIV-1 affects the more conserved, non-classical HLA-I molecules HLA-E, -G, and -F. In this review, we will focus on the recent progress in understanding the role of non-classical HLA-I ligands in NK cell-mediated recognition of HIV-1-infected cells.
Hölzemer, A., Garcia-Beltran, W. F., & Altfeld, M. (2017, November 14). Natural killer cell interactions with classical and non-classical human leukocyte antigen class I in HIV-1 Infection. Frontiers in Immunology. Frontiers Media S.A. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01496