The neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of six starfish polar steroids, asterosaponin P1, (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β, 4β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-octaol, and (25S)-5α-cholestane-3α,6α,7α,8,15α,16β, 26-heptaol (1-3) from the starfish Patiria pectinifera and distolasterosides D1-D3(4-6) from the starfish Distolasterias nipon were analyzed using the mouse neuroblastoma (NB) C-1300 cell line and an organotypic rat hippocampal slice culture (OHSC). All of these compounds enhanced neurite outgrowth in NB cells. Dose-dependent responses to compounds 1-3 were observed within the concentration range of 10-100 nM, and dose-dependent responses to glycosides 4-6 were observed at concentrations of 1-50 nM. All the tested substances exhibited notable synergistic effects with trace amounts of nerve growth factor (NGF, 1 ng/mL) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 0.1 ng/mL). Using NB cells and OHSCs, it was shown for the first time that starfish steroids 1-6 act as neuroprotectors against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by increasing the number of surviving cells. Altogether, these results suggest that neurotrophin-like neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities are most likely common properties of starfish polyhydroxysteroids and the related glycosides, although the magnitude of the effect depended on the particular compound structure. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI.
Palyanova, N. V., Pankova, T. M., Starostina, M. V., Kicha, A. A., Ivanchina, N. V., & Stonik, V. A. (2013). Neuritogenic and neuroprotective effects of polar steroids from the far east starfishes Patiria pectinifera and Distolasterias nipon. Marine Drugs, 11(5), 1440–1455. https://doi.org/10.3390/md11051440