Mastering the programming is no easy job because proper science of software does not yet exist. Solid and fundamental theories that apply universally are needed. Universalities ease mastering any kind of job. To ease mastering the programming, software science must answer what are the universal main concepts in programming, and the categories of token. This paper proposes punctuator and qualifier as two supplementary concepts of programming. Together with value, operation, type, and object; punctuator and universal serve as six main concepts of programming. This paper shows the six main concepts of programming serves as universal categories of tokens. The new theory for code-translation takes into account the universal categories for tokens.
Hutabarat, B. I. (2015). New theory for code-translation; punctuator and qualifier as two token categories and supplementary concepts of programming. In Procedia Computer Science (Vol. 62, pp. 282–286). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.08.451