In case of abnormal nipple discharge of the female breast, galactography can detect variations of ductal calibre, intraductal alterations and ductal discontinuities. Between 1964 and 1990 we examined 2588 women by galactography and performed 826 duct excisions. In one out of 8 patients (13.4%) we diagnosed invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ. In more than 40% a solitary ductal papilloma was detected. 13.7% of the patients were found to have extensive intraductal solid papillary or adenomatous epithelial proliferations. Comparison with collected statistical data reveals that other investigators are able to detect malignant changes in 1-23% of cases. We have managed the largest number of cases and have diagnosed pathologic ductal secretion in more than 3% of women we screened by physical inspection, mammography and sonography. The colour of the ductal discharge is of minor importance, as histologic analysis is mandated by the presence of ductal system alterations. © 1993.
Paterok, E. M., Rosenthal, H., & Säbel, M. (1993). Nipple discharge and abnormal galactogram. Results of a long-term study (1964-1990). European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 50(3), 227–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-2243(93)90205-Q