Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a key factor in trauma- and sepsis-induced coagulopathy. We examined how trauma-hemorrhage (TH) modulates PAI-1 responses in subsequent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, and the association of PAI-1 with septic outcomes. Methods: Mice underwent TH and CLP 48 h later in three separate experiments. In experiment 1, mice were sacrificed pre- and post-CLP to characterize the trajectory of PAI-1 in plasma (protein) and tissues (mRNA). Post-CLP dynamics in TH-CLP (this study) and CLP-Only mice (prior study) were then compared for modulatory effects of TH. In experiment 2, to relate PAI-1 changes to outcome, mice underwent TH-CLP and were sampled daily and followed for 14 days to compare non-survivors (DEAD) and survivors (SUR). In experiment 3, plasma and tissue PAI-1 expression were compared between mice predicted to die (P-DIE) and to live (P-LIVE). Results: In experiment 1, an early post-TH rise of circulating PAI-1 was contrasted by a delayed (post-TH) decrease of PAI-1 mRNA in organs. In the post-CLP phase, profiles of circulating PAI-1 were similar between TH-CLP and CLP-Only mice. Conversely, PAI-1 mRNA declined in the liver and heart of TH-CLP mice versus CLP-Only. In experiment 2, there were no DEAD/SUR differences in circulating PAI-1 prior to CLP. Post-CLP, circulating PAI-1 in DEAD was 2-4-fold higher than in SUR. PAI-1 increase heralded septic deaths up to 48 h prior but DEAD/SUR thrombomodulin (endothelial injury marker) levels were identical. In experiment 3, levels of circulating PAI-1 and its hepatic gene expression were higher in P-DIE versus P-LIVE mice and those increases closely correlated with liver dysfunction. Conclusions: Trauma modulated septic PAI-1 responses in a compartment-specific fashion. Only post-CLP increases in circulating PAI-1 predicted septic outcomes. In posttraumatic sepsis, pre-lethal release of PAI-1 was mostly of hepatic origin and was independent of endothelial injury. © 2013 Raeven et al.
Raeven, P., Salibasic, A., Drechsler, S., Weixelbaumer, K. M., Jafarmadar, M., van Griensven, M., … Osuchowski, M. F. (2013). A Non-Lethal Traumatic/Hemorrhagic Insult Strongly Modulates the Compartment-Specific PAI-1 Response in the Subsequent Polymicrobial Sepsis. PLoS ONE, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055467