© Zhai et al. Numerous researches supported that oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the development of diabetic encephalopathy (DEP). Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1), one major component of Panax notoginseng, is believed to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, its neuroprotective effects against DEP and underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, db/db mice as well as high-glucose (HG)-treated HT22 hippocampal neurons were used as in vivo and in vitro models to estimate NGR1 neuroprotection. NGR1 administration for 10 weeks could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, depression-like behaviors, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in db/db mice. NGR1 markedly decreased the oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia in hippocampal neurons. NGR1 significantly activated the protein kinase B (Akt)/nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor2 (Nrf2) pathway, and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in hippocampal neurons, which might be essential for the neuroprotective effects of NGR1. Further supporting these results, we observed that pretreatment with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 abolished NGR1-mediated neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HG-treated HT22 hippocampal neurons. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the neuroprotective effects of NGR1 on DEP by activating the Akt/Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. This study also provides a novel strategy for the application of NGR1 as a therapeutic agent for patients with DEP.
Zhai, Y., Meng, X., Luo, Y., Wu, Y., Ye, T., Zhou, P., … Sun, X. (2018). Notoginsenoside R1 ameliorates diabetic encephalopathy by activating the Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Oncotarget, 9(10). https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24295