Fullerene (C60) was solubilized with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in water, and the aqueous solution was applied to a mouse midbrain cell differentiation system. On incubation of C60 with various concentrations of PVP, cell differentiation and proliferation were potently inhibited, although weaker than the vehicle controls. C60 was clearly distributed into the yolk sac and embryos by intraperitoneal administration to pregnant mice at 50 mg/kg and had a harmful effect on both conceptuses by microscopical evaluation. This in vivo and in vitro action on embryogenesis is a novel and seriously harmful activity of C60.
Tsuchiya, T., Oguri, I., Yamakoshi, Y. N., & Miyata, N. (1996). Novel harmful effects of fullerene on mouse embryos in vitro and in vivo. FEBS Letters, 393(1), 139–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(96)00812-5