Novel HIV-1 recombinants spreading across multiple risk groups in the United Kingdom: The identification and phylogeography of circulating recombinant form (CRF) 50-A1D

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Abstract

Background: An increase in non-B HIV-1 infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom (UK) has created opportunities for novel recombinants to arise and become established. We used molecular mapping to characterize the importance of such recombinants to the UK HIV epidemic, in order to gain insights into transmission dynamics that can inform control strategies. Methods and Results: A total of 55,556 pol (reverse transcriptase and protease) sequences in the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database were analyzed using Subtype Classification Using Evolutionary Algorithms (SCUEAL). Overall 72 patients shared the same A1/D recombination breakpoint in pol, comprising predominantly MSM but also heterosexuals and injecting drug users (IDUs). In six MSM, full-length single genome amplification of plasma HIV-1 RNA was performed in order to characterize the A1/D recombinant. Subtypes and recombination breakpoints were identified using sliding window and jumping profile hidden markov model approaches. Global maximum likelihood trees of gag, pol and env genes were drawn using FastTree version 2.1. Five of the six strains showed the same novel A1/D recombinant (8 breakpoints), which has been classified as CRF50-A1D. The sixth strain showed a complex CRF50-A1D/B/U structure. Divergence dates and phylogeographic inferences were determined using Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis using Sampling Trees (BEAST). This estimated that CRF50-A1D emerged in the UK around 1992 in MSM, with subsequent transmissions to heterosexuals and IDUs. Analysis of CRF50-A1D/B/U demonstrated that around the year 2000 CRF50-A1D underwent recombination with a subtype B strain. Conclusions: We report the identification of CRF50-A1D, a novel circulating recombinant that emerged in UK MSM around 1992, with subsequent onward transmission to heterosexuals and IDUs, and more recent recombination with subtype B. These findings highlight the changing dynamics of HIV transmission in the UK and the converging of the two previously distinct MSM and heterosexual epidemics. Copyright: © 2014 Foster et al.

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Foster, G. M., Ambrose, J. C., Hué, S., Delpech, V. C., Fearnhill, E., Abecasis, A. B., … Geretti, A. M. (2014). Novel HIV-1 recombinants spreading across multiple risk groups in the United Kingdom: The identification and phylogeography of circulating recombinant form (CRF) 50-A1D. PLoS ONE, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083337

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