ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The cytoprotective nature of nitric oxide (NO) led to development of NO-aspirins in the hope of overcoming the gastric side-effects of aspirin. However, the NO moiety gives these hybrids potential for actions further to their aspirin-mediated anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects. Having previously shown that novel NO-aspirin hybrids containing a furoxan NO-releasing group have potent anti-platelet effects, here we investigate their anti-inflammatory properties. Here we examine their effects upon TNFalpha release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and investigate a potential mechanism of action through effects on LPS-stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. METHODS: Peripheral venous blood was drawn from the antecubital fossa of human volunteers. Mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured. The resultant differentiated macrophages were treated with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of either a furoxan-aspirin (B8, B7; 10 muM), their respective furazan NO-free counterparts (B16, B15; 10 muM), aspirin (10 muM), existing nitroaspirin (NCX4016; 10 muM), an NO donor (DEA/NO; 10 muM) or dexamethasone (1 muM), in the presence and absence of LPS (10 ng/ml; 4 h). Parallel experiments were conducted on undifferentiated fresh monocytes. Supernatants were assessed by specific ELISA for TNFalpha release and by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for cell necrosis. To assess NF-kappaB activation, the effects of the compounds on the loss of cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-kappaB, IkappaBalpha (assessed by western blotting) and nuclear localisation (assessed by immunofluorescence) of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB were determined. RESULTS: B8 significantly reduced TNFalpha release from LPS-treated macrophages to 36 +/- 10% of the LPS control. B8 and B16 significantly inhibited monocyte TNFalpha release to 28 +/- 5, and 49 +/- 9% of control, respectively. The B8 effect was equivalent in magnitude to that of dexamethasone, but was not shared by 10 muM DEA/NO, B7, the furazans, aspirin or NCX4016. LDH assessment revealed none of the treatments caused significant cell lysis. LPS stimulated loss of cytoplasmic IkappaBalpha and nuclear translocation of the p65 NF-kappaB subunit was inhibited by the active NO-furoxans. CONCLUSION: Here we show that furoxan-aspirin, B8, significantly reduces TNFalpha release from both monocytes and macrophages and suggest that inhibition of NF-kappaB activation is a likely mechanism for the effect. This anti-inflammatory action highlights a further therapeutic potential of drugs of this class.
Turnbull, C. M., Marcarino, P., Sheldrake, T. A., Lazzarato, L., Cena, C., Fruttero, R., … Rossi, A. G. (2008). A novel hybrid aspirin-NO-releasing compound inhibits TNFalpha release from LPS-activated human monocytes and macrophages. Journal of Inflammation, 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-9255-5-12