Background: Mounting evidence shows that urate may become a biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis and prognosis and a neuroprotectant candidate for PD therapy. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective actions remain poorly understood. Results: In this study, we showed that urate pretreatment protected dopaminergic cell line (SH-SY5Y and MES23.5) against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage. Urate was found to be accumulated into SH-SY5Y cells after 30 min treatment. Moreover, urate induced NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) accumulation by inhibiting its ubiquitinationa and degradation, and also promoted its nuclear translocation; however, it did not modulate Nrf2 mRNA level or Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) expression. In addition, urate markedly up-regulated the transcription and protein expression of γ-glutamate- cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), both of which are controlled by Nrf2 activity. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA abolished the intracellular glutathione augmentation and the protection exerted by urate pretreatment. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that urate treatment may result in Nrf2-targeted anti-oxidant genes transcription and expression by reducing Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation and promoting its nuclear translocation, and thus offer neuroprotection on dopaminergic cells against oxidative stresses. © 2014 Zhang et al.
Zhang, N., Shu, H. Y., Huang, T., Zhang, Q. L., Li, D., Zhang, G. Q., … Hu, L. F. (2014). Nrf2 signaling contributes to the neuroprotective effects of urate against 6-OHDA toxicity. PLoS ONE, 9(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100286