The study provides a numerical analysis of laminar forced convective heat transfer of graphene oxide nanosheets suspended in the mixture of water and ethylene glycol in laminar flow regime using single phase approach in a circular horizontal tube under constant heat flux conditions. The length and diameter of the simulation domain for numerical investigation are 2 m and 4.5 mm respectively. The effect of various flow conditions and weight concentrations have been investigated on local heat transfer coefficient, average heat transfer coefficient, friction factor, pressure drop and thermal performance factor of the nanofluids. The range of weight concentration and Reynolds number used in this study are 0.01–0.1 wt.% and 400–2000 respectively. The maximum percentage enhancement in average heat transfer coefficient was 13.04% for weight concentration and Reynolds number of 0.1 wt.% and 2000 respectively. The maximum pressure drop enhancement ratio was 2.12 at Reynolds number and weight concentration of 400 and 0.10 wt.%. The enhancement in heat transfer coefficient was found lower as compared to corresponding enhanced pressure drop for all weight concentrations. The thermal performance factor of nanofluids is less than one for all weight concentrations and nanofluids showed no advantage over base fluid as heat transfer fluid in laminar flow regime.
Sajjad, M., Kamran, M. S., Shaukat, R., & Zeinelabdeen, M. I. M. (2018). Numerical investigation of laminar convective heat transfer of graphene oxide/ethylene glycol-water nanofluids in a horizontal tube. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 21(4), 727–735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2018.06.009