A comprehensive 3D turbulent CFD study has been carried out to simulate a Low-Head (LH) vertical Direct Chill (DC) rolling ingot caster for the common magnesium alloy AZ31. The model used in this study takes into account the coupled laminar/turbulent melt flow and solidification aspects of the process and is based on the control-volume finite-difference approach. Following the aluminum/magnesium DC casting industrial practices, the LH mold is taken as 30 mm with a hot top of 60 mm. The previously verified in-house code has been modified to model the present casting process. Important quantitative results are obtained for four casting speeds, for three inlet melt pouring temperatures (superheats) and for three metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficients for the steady state operational phase of the caster. The variable cooling water temperatures reported by the industry are considered for the primary and secondary cooling zones during the simulations. Specifically, the temperature and velocity fields, sump depth and sump profiles, mushy region thickness, solid shell thickness at the exit of the mold and axial temperature profiles at the center and at three strategic locations at the surface of the slab are presented and discussed.
Hasan, M., & Begum, L. (2014). On numerical modeling of low-head direct chill ingot caster for magnesium alloy AZ31. Journal of Magnesium and Alloys, 2(4), 275–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jma.2014.11.008