Objective: This study aims to reveal the morphological, histological, and immunohistochemical mechanism of pannus formation using resected pannus tissue from patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction. Method: Eleven patients with prosthetic valve (St Jude Medical valve) dysfunction in the aortic position who underwent reoperation were studied. We used specimens of resected pannus for histological staining (hematoxylin and eosin, Grocott's, azan, elastica van Gieson) and immunohistochemical staining (transforming growth factor-beta, transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, CD34, factor VIII, CD68KP1, matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and matrix metalloproteinase-9). Results: Pannus without thrombus was observed at the periannulus of the left ventricular septal side; it extended into the pivot guard, interfering with the movement of the straight edge of the leaflet. The histological staining demonstrated that the specimens were mainly constituted with collagen and elastic fibrous tissue accompanied by endothelial cells, chronic inflammatory cells infiltration, and myofibroblasts. The immunohistochemical findings showed significant expression of transforming growth factor-beta, transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1, CD34, and factor VII in the endothelial cells of the lumen layer; strong transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and epithelial membrane antigen in the myofibroblasts of the media layer; and transforming growth factor-beta, transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1, and CD68KP1 in macrophages of the stump lesion. Conclusions: Pannus appeared to originate in the neointima in the periannulus of the left ventricular septum. The structure of the pannus consisted of myofibroblasts and an extracellular matrix such as collagen fiber. The pannus formation after prosthetic valve replacement may be associated with a process of periannular tissue healing via the expression of transforming growth factor-beta.
Teshima, H., Hayashida, N., Yano, H., Nishimi, M., Tayama, E., Fukunaga, S., … Aoyagi, S. (2003). Obstruction of St Jude medical valves in the aortic position: Histology and immunohistochemistry of pannus. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 126(2), 401–407. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5223(03)00702-5