Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008-09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008-09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008-09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe). For each province, the basic reproduction number (R 0 ) in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate R 0 in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of R 0 agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects 6340(5565-7264) cholera cases and 271(238-309) cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008-09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution, vaccination, treatment and sanitation for each province. © 2013 Sardar et al.
Sardar, T., Mukhopadhyay, S., Bhowmick, A. R., & Chattopadhyay, J. (2013). An optimal cost effectiveness study on Zimbabwe cholera seasonal data from 2008-2011. PLoS ONE, 8(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081231