Grout injection is used for sealing or strengthening the ground in order to prevent water entrance or any failure after excavation. There are many methods of grouting. Permeation grouting is one of the most common types in which the grout material is injected to the pore spaces of the ground. In grouting operations, the grout quality is important to achieve the best results. There are four main characteristics for a grout mixture including bleeding, setting time, strength, and viscosity. In this paper, we try to build some efficient grouting mixtures with different water to cement ratios considering these characteristics. The ingredients of grout mixtures built in this study are cement, water, bentonite, and some chemical additives such as sodium silicate, sodium carbonate, and triethanolamine (TEA). The grout mixtures are prepared for both of the sealing and strengthening purposes for a structural project. Effect of each above-mentioned ingredient is profoundly investigated. Since each ingredient may have positive or negative aspect, an optimization of appropriate amount of each ingredient is determined. The optimization is based on 200 grout mixture samples with different percentages of ingredients. Finally, some of these grout mixtures are chosen for the introduced project. It should be mentioned that grouting operations depend on various factors such as pressure of injection, ground structure and grain size of soils. However, quality of a grout can be helpful to make an injection easier and reasonable. For example, during the injection, a wrong estimated setting time can destroy the injected grout by washing the grout or setting early which prevents grouting. This paper tries to show some tests in easy way to achieve a desirable sample of grout.
Azadi, M. R., Taghichian, A., & Taheri, A. (2017). Optimization of cement-based grouts using chemical additives. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(4), 623–637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2016.11.013