Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is rare in pediatric patients, however is the most common extrathyroid manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD), being present in 30-67% of patients. GO is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder involving orbital connective and fatty tissues as well as the extraocular muscles. In children, GO is less common and less severe than in adults. The most common symptoms are upper eyelid retraction, conjunctival injection, and proptosis and periorbital edema. Severe complications include dysthyroid optic neuropathy, corneal ulceration and eyeball subluxation. The diagnosis is established by clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. There are no management guidelines for GO in children but adult recommendations include the assessment of clinical activity and its severity, to implement the best treatment. Supportive therapies are intended to relieve symptoms and prevent corneal damage in mild cases. Tobacco exposure should also be avoided. The first line of treatment is systemic administration of corticosteroids in active and severe cases. Other options as somatostatin use and retrobulbar radiation have not been used in children, therefore their use is not recommended.
Mendoza F., C., & Lacourt R., P. (2015). Orbitopatía de Graves en pediatría. Revista Medica de Chile, 143(8), 1034–1041. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872015000800011