The stacking of discotic molecules (hexakis(alkoxy)diquinoxalino[2,3-a:2',3'-c]phenazines) in the columnar phase sandwiched between two flat glass substrates has been studied. The surface free energy of the substrates, measured by means of sessile drop technique, is found to have significant influence on the way that the discotic molecules anchor on the surface, and a steady thermal state of the system is crucial for a homogenous orientation of the discotic columns. On a surface of high free energy, the discotic molecules anchor with their disc-face toward the surface. A decrease in the surface free energy of the substrate causes the discotic columns to tilt away from the normal of the substrate.
Zheng, W., Hu, Y. T., Chiang, C. Y., & Ong, C. W. (2010). Orientational packing of a confined discotic mesogen in the columnar phase. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 11(3), 943–955. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11030943