The protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma, like many intracellular pathogens, suppresse s interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activity.We exploited this well-defined host–pathogen interaction as the basis for a highthroughput screen, identifying nine transcription factors that enhance STAT1 function in the nucleus, including the orphan nuclear hormone receptor TLX. Expression profiling reve aledthat upon IFN-γ treatment TLX enhances the output of a subset of IFN-γ target genes, which we found is dependent on TLX binding at those loci. Moreover, infection of TLX deficient mice with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma results in impaired production of the STAT1-dependent cytokine interleukin-12 by dendritic cells and increased parasite burden in the brain during chronic infection. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for this orphan nuclear hormone receptor in regulating STAT1 signaling and host defense and reveal that STAT1 activity can be odulated in a context-specific manner by such “modifiers.”.
Beiting, D. P., Hidano, S., Baggs, J. E., Geskes, J. M., Fang, Q., Wherry, E. J., … Cherry, S. (2015). The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is an enhancer of STAT1-mediated transcription and immunity to toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Biology, 13(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002200